Sunday, June 26, 2016



Dr. Ishanand Vempeny

(Published in Jeevadhara, Vol.XLVI, No.273, May 2016, pp.66-85)


As we have hinted at earlier, fundamentalism and to some extent terrorism are found in practically all the world religions. The Khalistan movement too was a terrorist group in Sikhism confined mostly to the Punjab. There are Buddhist fundamentalist groups in Thailand, Burma and Sri Lanka with local interests. Similar groups in Hinduism like Shiv Sena, Sri Ram Sena, Bajrang Dal, etc. are much localized and with very limited supports from the majority of Hindus. But the sad truth is that the Islamic terrorist groups like the ISIS, Al-Qaeda, Taliban and the like seem to have their units all over the world both Muslim and non-Muslim.

According to Taslima Nasreen a liberal Muslim writer, Islamic terrorism is a threat to the whole world:

“Islamic fundamentalism is not a negligible problem. If one wants to address this problem, one has to go to its very roots. Preaching principles of freedom of expression alone won’t do any good. One has to know that mantra makes terrorists tick and influences them to take up arms. It is important to stop indoctrination of children with irrational religious faith at home or institutions like madrasas or mosques. They should be raised to have logical, rational minds and to adopt scientific outlooks that are able to distinguish between right and wrong. I strongly believe that as long as Islam remains unreformed, there can be no end to terror.”[1]

People have become skeptical to the Muslim assertion that Islam is a religion of peace. Recently I came across an article in which the author says that “the biggest joke of the 21st century is the assertion that Islam is a peace-loving religion”.

An Islamic scholar said in an interview:

“We hear, very often, Muslims say: ‘This has nothing to do with Islam.’ This is a spontaneous reaction of Muslims on the street. But, in fact, it’s a false reaction. This too is a part of Islam. From the beginning there has been some tolerance towards Jews and Christians, but other non-Muslims (unbelievers) had to convert or die. So these fanatics are following this line, with one difference: They call ‘unbeliever’ (kafir) anyone who is not like them, even the Shia, the Yazidi or the Christian.[2]

          The same idea of the responsibility of Islam as a whole is shared by Raghu Raman. He says:

“Strategists as well as the political and security leadership continue to christen these attacks based on their location. So we have the Madrid attack, followed by the London attack, the Mumbai attack, and so forth. However, labeling them in this way veils the fact that while each attack saw the targeting of the people of a particular city by a different terror groups, the underlying motivation, training, ideological guidance and other essential ingredients of waging war have the same fountainhead. Therefore, each attack must be given the same degree of global mindshare, regardless of the target city.”[3]
The American unwillingness, indeed the unwillingness of the West as a whole, to trace the source of fundamentalism and terrorism in Islam itself, leads them clueless for a solution against Islamic terrorism. Thomas Friedman calls it the inability to call a spade spade. Their search for political correctness does not allow them to put blame on Islam in a generalist way. Friedman says:

“When you don’t call things by their real name, you always get in trouble. And this administration, so fearful of being accused of Islamophobia, is refusing to make any link to radical Islam from the recent explosions of violence against civilians (most of them Muslims) by Boko Haram in Nigeria, by the Taliban in Pakistan, by al-Qaeda in Paris and by jihadists in Yemen and Iraq.[4]
Non-Americans like us Indians it is not difficult to find the Western unwillingness to go to the source. It is the need of Arab oil controlled chiefly by Saudi Arabia. In the book mentioned earlier Sleeping with the Devil the author has pointed out that the Saudi Arabian Islam, centered on Wahhabism, is very much responsible for Islamic terrorism especially the 9/11 attack on the World Trade Centre.
a.     The Mysterious absence of authoritative Fatwas against Terrorism

Fatwa is one of the weapons wielded by the Islamic leadership both religious and political, when the Islamic ‘law’ is broken, chiefly by the Muslims. In the recent past there have been galore of fatwa’s in India alone. These fatwa’s have been even in small matters like playing chess, etc. But there had not been serious and authoritative fatwa’s against the cruelest and inhuman behaviors of Muslim terrorists like the ISIS, Al-Qaeda, Taliban, Boko Haram and so on.  

According to Holy Quran every Muslim should be a “Witness” to Allah’s mercy and justice. The following verses are just few samples from many:

“O ye who believe! Stand out firmly for justice, as witnesses to God, even as against yourselves, or your parents, or your kin, and whether it is (against) rich or poor: For God can best protect both.” (Quran 4:135)

“O ye who believe! Stand our firmly for God, as witnesses to fair dealing, and let not the hatred of others to you make you swerve to wrong and depart from justice. Be just: that is next to piety: and fear God, for God is well-acquainted with all that ye do.” (Quran 5:8)

“O ye who believe! Cancel not your charity by reminders of your generosity or by injury – like those who spend their substance to be seen of men, but believe neither in God nor in the Last Day.” (Quran 2:264)

Islamic preaching with gentleness

“Invite (all) to the way of thy Lord with wisdom and beautiful preaching; and argue with them in ways that are best and most gracious; for thy Lord knoweth best, who have strayed from His Path, and who  receive guidance.” (Quran 16:125)

The brutal killing of innocent people like Sisters of Mother Teresa goes directly against many of the teachings of the Quran especially through the above verses. There are many more verses in this Holy Book which command the Muslims to be kind and merciful. Rightly therefore the Islamic columnist and scholar Sadia Dehlvi writes:

“Clearly, the usual response, ‘Islam is a religion of peace’; rings hollow in the midst of the brutalities and slaughter that Muslim terrorists are perpetrating. Sadly, they are succeeding in globally projecting Islam as inherently violent… Nothing defames Islam more than ISIS using the image of Prophet Muhammad’s seal on their flag.[5]

b.     The Galore of Fatwas against dubious and unimportant issues

But lo and behold! There have been galore of fatwas in India and other countries on relatively insignificant and dubious matters.

“In a fatwa or religious decree, issued in response to a question from a caller to a Saudi TV show, Grand mufti Sheikh Abdul-Aziz Al-Sheikh said that the game was ‘the work of Satan,’ like alcohol and gambling, despite its long history in the West Asia. Chess is played across the Arab world.”[6]

Even against a smaller and dubious issue, the most authoritative body of Indian Islam issued the following Fatwa as reported by various Indian Newspapers. The Indian Express wrote:

“Deoband fatwa against chanting ‘Bharat Mata ki Jai’. India’s largest Islamic Seminary Darool Uloom Deoband, has issued a fatwa stating Muslims should refrain from chanting the slogan ‘Bharat Mata ki Jai’ as it was against the basic tenets of their religion… The fatwa states that chanting the slogan was against “tauheed”, or the “oneness of Allah” which forms the core of Islam.”[7]

The figure of speech ‘personification’ does not seem to be opposed to Islam. A poet can personify a bird, animal, tree, plant, star, cloud, etc. but it has to be questioned whether such personifications are against the Muslim tenets or not.

c.      Why no Fatwa against Inhuman Cruelty against the Nature of Allah?

There is no fatwa against the most inhuman and barbaric deeds like the torturing and burning of the Jordanian pilot. Practically most Muslims chant the following Quranic verse which is at the beginning of the Holy Book Quran: “Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Rahim” which means Allah is most gracious and most merciful. About this verse the translator and commentator A. Yusuf Ali says: “By universal consent it is rightly placed at the beginning of the Quran, as summing up, in marvelously terse and comprehensive words, man’s relation to God in contemplation and prayer.”[8]

Any non-Muslim and most Muslims would accept that the followers, indeed the children (‘aulad’) of Allah, should have at least some qualities of mercy and compassion. This has to be fundamental to Islam. At the beginning we have seen the brutal and inhuman cruelty perpetrated by ISIS and its allied branches like Boko-Haram. But the shocking thing is that no noted Muslim leaders or associations including the Darool Uloom Deoband did not pronounce any un-ambivalent Fatwa against this behavior which have been carried on for quite some years especially after the 9/11 World Trade Centre. People know that Saudi Arabia and the Arabic states are supporting the terrorists with money and misinterpreted Quranic verses. This duplicity makes the non-Muslims believe that Islamic authorities do not believe that ‘peace is a desideratum’ for Muslims. This double-standard in fatwas makes the non-Muslims like the above quoted Western Writer, who wrote “The biggest joke of the 21st century is the Islamic proclamation that Islam is a peace loving religion.” 

There have been some fatwas in the recent past against Islamic terrorist groups. But they are too late and too few. Here below we shall give an example of a recent fatwa:

“About 1.5 million Muslims in India have signed a statement condemning terrorism, and 70,000 Islamic clerics have joined in a fatwa condemning the Islamic State. The clerics agreed that terrorist groups should not be recognized as “Islamic organizations.” The dual statements were issued from a Sufi shrine near Ajmer, in the state of Rajasthan, during a religious festival there.”[9]

[1] The Times of India, Taslima Nasreen, “Will Gunmen Get Me Too?” January 13, 2015, p.14
[2] JIVAN, “Reasons for the rampage”, Nov.-Dec. 2014, p.14
[3] Indian Express,Raghu Raman, “One world, one battlefield”, November 18, 2015, p.11
[4] Indian Express,Thomas L. Friedman, “You can’t dance around the topic of radical Islam”, January 25, 2015, p.7
[5] Times of India,Sadia Dehlvi, “A Muslim Crossroads”, January 22, 2016, p.18
[6] Times of India, Ben Hubbard, “Top Saudi cleric forbids chess, calls it un-Islamic”, January 23, 2016, p.13
[7] Indian Express, “Deoband fatwa against chanting ‘Bharat Mata ki Jai’, April 2, 2016, p.1
[8] Holy Quran, Ed. & Tra., A. Yusuf Ali, published by Amana Corp., 4411, 41st St., Brentwood, Maryland 20722, USA, 1983, p.14
[9] Link:

Wednesday, June 22, 2016



Dr. Ishanand Vempeny

(Published in Jeevadhara, Vol.XLVI, No.273, May 2016, pp.66-85) 


The daily news media come up with more and more gruesome terrorism by ISIS. Some time back there appeared on some of the news channels the video-shot of a boy, a little above KG class age. The boy was made to sit on the shoulders of a hand-leg bound prisoner. After giving a small sword the ISIS members were instigating the boy to cut off the head of the prisoner. Can any sect in any religion force children to commit such cruel and inhuman crimes? It was reported in a number of newspapers the case of a primary school age boy shooting his mother for advising him to run away from the ISIS camp. The treatment of the women of minority communities like the Yezidis, Christians and Shia of Iraq and Syria, had been brutal and inhuman. The African ISIS outfit called Boko Haram is no less brutal than their Asian counter-parts. They kidnapped some 600 Christian girls, forced them to study by heart the Quran, gang-raped them and then sold many of them in the market as sex-slaves. Recently they showed in of their DVD propaganda shows, some 200 of these girls kept waiting to be sold in the slave market.

Just recently appeared in the newspapers about the gruesome murder in Iraq of some 250 captured girls including some middle-aged women for refusing to become the sex-slaves of the ISIS. The Indian Express reports:  

“The Islamic State, notorious for its brutality, has reportedly executed 250 girls in northern Iraq for refusing to become sex slaves… The girls had been ordered to accept temporary marriages to the terrorists and were murdered, sometimes alongside their families, for their refusal to be sex slaves in Iraq’s second largest city of Mosul. IS began selecting women of Mosul and forced them into marrying its militants, calling it temporary marriage since it has taken control over Mosul.”[1]

          About the horrible crimes perpetrated by the ISIS on the Yezidi people in Syria, in the first May issue of theTIME magazine there is the story of Nadia Murad who escaped from the camp of the ISIS after much torture. She has become a champion for the release of numerous girls imprisoned by ISIS for their sexual gratification. This is what the TIME reports: 

“At 19 she lost her home, her country, her culture, her mother to murder; witnessed male members of her family murdered in mass killings; and was kidnapped, sold and endlessly raped by members of ISIS. She now travels the world speaking out on the genocide being inflicted on her Yezidi people and demanding release for the more than 3,000 women still held in bondage.”[2]
The international press has been highlighting the brutal cruelty, with which the Boko Haram had been torturing with impunity, the non-Muslims of north-eastern Nigeria and of the surrounding countries. The Nigerian government with its enormous amount of petro-dollars is made spineless and foolish. Here we shall cite a few lines from the Indian Express

“A new video from Nigeria’s home-grown Boko Haram extremists shows gunmen mowing down, and a leader saying they are being killed because they are ‘infidels’ or non-believers. There are so many corpses the gunmen have difficulty stepping to reach bodies still twitching with life. Most appear to be adult men. We have made sure the floor of his hall is turned red with blood, and this is how it is going to be in all future attacks and arrests of infidels, the group leader says in a message.”[3]

The number of terrorist attacks by Islamic terrorists seems to be rising continuously. When I checked in the Google the list of such attacks runs into many hundreds. Here for a sample let us copy the list of Islamic terror, just of the month of January 2016, leaving aside the very long lists from 1980 to 2016. In the list of 2014 and 2015 there are hundreds of Islamic terrorist attacks in difference parts of the world. But it would be too long for our article. We shall be satisfied with the list of only of January 2016.[4]

Year - 2016
·         January 1, 2016 – A Taliban suicide bomber detonated himself in a French restaurant called 'Le Jardin' in Kabul. 2 dead 15 injured.
·         January 2, 2016 – In the 2016 Pathankot attack suspected Jaish-e-Mohammed militants attacked an Indian air base killing 7 security force members. Several injured.
·         January 3, 2016 – Five Islamist suicide bombers attack an Iraqi military base. 15 dead and 22 injured.
·         January 4, 2016 – A Militant drove a truck packed with explosives to the armored gates of a compound for civilian contractors near Kabul's airport before detonating. 30 people injured, including children.
·         January 7, 2016 – In the Zliten truck bombing Islamist militants detonated a truck bomb at the police training camp al-Jahfal in the coastal town of Zliten, Libya. 50+ dead 100+ wounded.
·         January 7, 2016 – In the January 2016 Paris police station attack an Islamist from Morocco wearing a fake explosive belt attacked police officers with a meat cleaver. He was shot dead.
·         January 7, 2016 – A car bombing at a checkpoint in the Libyan oil port of Ras Lanuf left seven people dead and 11 wounded.
·         January 8, 2016 – In the 2016 Hurghada attack two militants armed with a melee weapon and a signal flare stormed the Bella Vista Hotel. 3 injured.
·         January 11, 2016 – A 15-year old Turkish ISIL supporter attacked a teacher from a Jewish school in Marseille with a machete. 1 injured.
·         January 11, 2016 – ISIL gunmen detonate suicide vests in a shopping mall, killing at least 20 and wounding more than 40 people.
·         January 12, 2016 – In the 2016 Istanbul bombing an ISIL suicide bomber kills 10 tourists and injures 15 more in the historical centre of Istanbul.
·         January 14, 2016 – In the 2016 Jakarta attacks 4 assailants kill 2 and injure 24 in a terrorist attack in Jakarta. The attack was orchestrated and financed from ISIL in Syria.
·         January 15, 2016 – In the El Adde attackAl-Shabaab terrorists attack an African Union Kenyan army base in El-Adde. 63+ killed, several injured.
·         January 15, 2016 – In the 2016 Ouagadougou attack Islamist gunmen armed with heavy weapons attacked the Cappuccino restaurant and the Splendid Hotel in the heart of Ouagadougou, the capital of Burkina Faso. 20+ killed. 15+ injured.
·         January 21, 2016 – At least 22 killed in attack on Bacha Khan University, Pakistan. The Taliban claim responsibility for the attack.
·         January 22, 2016 – Al-Shabab attack on beachside restaurant leaves 20 dead.
·         January 25, 2016 – Suspected Boko Haram insurgents have blown themselves up in a market in Cameroon, killing at least 25 people and injuring 62 others.
·         January 30, 2016 – Boko Haram gunmen raided a Nigerian village, at least 65 people were killed and 136 others injured.

If we look at the list from the year of 2000 onwards, we will realize that these Islamic terrorist attacks were not only on non-Muslims but also on Islamic ones, not only in a localized way but in all the continents. The Islamic terrorist attacks are qualitatively and quantitatively different from the attacks originating from other religions. Let us take the example of the terrorism of Ku Klux Klan, a terrorist group originating from American Christianity. This terrorism is very much localized and the American Christians do not take them seriously. Besides, their lethal activities are controlled by the government and the people. The IRA, originated in Ireland, opposing the British Colonialism, remained confined to the British Islands. This terrorism was stopped once for all through the Good Friday agreement initiated by the then American President Bill Clinton. These and similar terrorist groups in other religions are very much localized and open to negotiations.

[1] Indian Express, “IS executes 250 women for refusing to become sex slaves, says report”, April 22, 2016, p.12
[2] TIME, Eve Ensler, “Nadia Murad A witness for war’s victims”, May 2-9, 2016, p.24
[3] Indian Express, Haruna Umar, “Boko Haram releases horrific video of slaughter of captives”, December 22, 2014, p.9

Thursday, June 16, 2016



Dr. Ishanand Vempeny

(Published in Jeevadhara, Vol.XLVI, No.273, May 2016, pp.66-85)

A few weeks after the terrorist attack in Paris on 13 November 2015, there appeared an interesting scene in the TV channels and in the newspapers. A Muslim young man stands in a crowded Paris suburb with his face covered and with the caption on his body: “I am a Muslim. Please kiss me.” Quite a few French non-Muslims, both men and women approached him sympathetically and kissed him. Soon there gathered a crowd of white French men/women around him.

This shows that even after the Paris terrorist attack many of the French still remain liberal. Besides, there was a feeling of tolerance among the French. Indeed, the atmosphere a little farther from the crowd proclaimed loudly that many French Muslims who have nothing to do with terrorism, want France be free from Islamophobia. Today can we say that only a few French are affected by this ethnic disease and only a few French Muslims have the ‘jihadistic’ inclinations?

The truth of the matter is that the ethnic disease of Islamophobia is spreading all over the West and Islamic terrorism, even with greater brutality and fury, is causing the spread of this phobia far and wide. The American Presidential candidate declared publicly, if he would become the President, no more Muslims would be allowed to come to USA. Even Germany which welcomed more than a million Muslim Refugees is having second thoughts in this matter. After the attack by the refugees on the German women and sexual harassment of many of them in Cologne by more than a thousand refugees, anti-refugee and anti-Islamic attitudes are growing there. Captions calling the refugees ‘Rape-Fugees’ are appearing in different parts of Germany. The German Chancellor Angela Merkel has become a butt of negative criticism in Germany and beyond.

The Rightist and anti-immigration parties of France, Netherlands, Belgium and the like are creating anti-Islamic atmosphere all over Europe. The finding of terrorists among the refugees is making the Islamophobia more intense and intolerable. The cruel shooting of Mother Teresa Sisters in Yemen, tying them to posts, has added fuel to Islamophobia in Europe and beyond. After shooting them their skulls were broken with heavy weapons. They have kidnapped their chaplain, an Indian priest and were planning to crucify him on Good Friday2016. Mother Teresa is a revered icon all over the West and her sisters share this Western reverence. Such cruel and shocking deeds of terrorism does make Islamophobia spread far and wide.  


          The NATO powers and the Russians have been opposing ISIS with their Air Forces. One of the reasons why their land forces are not sent is that these forces are well aware of the cruel torture and sadistic murder by the ISIS of the defeated victims. The Americans and the Russians do not want even a single soldier from their armed forces fall into the hands of these brutish terrorists.

For instance, a Jordanian pilot fell into the hands of the ISIS. A few lines from the description of this horrific deed taken from the Google:

“By Walid Shoebat (with cooperation from The Right Scoop) The Jordanian pilot from the U.S. led-Coalition Muath Al-Kassasbeh was not given food for 5 days and then is arrayed in front of armed terrorists as if this was part of a Roman arena, to be caged like an animal… But this is Muslim reality TV at its best, a plunge into the dark history of Islam. The POW pilot is then soaked with petrol and set on fire while professionally filming his slow suffering as a sacrificial offering to Allah and with no remorse to the screaming and melting of a human being. This is not something we suggest you watch, but ask: how can the world stand idly by while we see this and still think that Islam is a peace loving religion?[1] 

Meghnad Desai writes about this cruel Islamic movement:

“The war in the Middle East that Assad and Baghdadi are waging is of Muslims against fellow Muslims… Thousands more Muslims – Shia and Sunni – are being massacred by the murderous regimes in the region. The Middle East is almost 100 per cent Muslim but the majority of the world’s Muslims live outside. Why have the majority living in India, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Indonesia, Pakistan, Nigeria not protested against this massacre?”[2]

The Wahhabistic fundamentalism of Saudi Arabia, with its fanatic propaganda and money power is increasing Islamophobia both in the West and in the East. There are rumors that the Wahhabi Mullahs and Maulanas are secretly encouraging the Muslims with terrorist inclinations, especially the Muslim prisoners to continue fighting for the ISIS or Caliphate.

The Muslim Reactions to ISIS atrocities seem too late and too mild while under-hand support by various Islamic nations and associations are becoming too obvious. This leads to an intensification of Islamophobia. The Wahhabism-centered Saudi Arabia seems to many people including the USA the biggest villain. A typical example is the help promised by Saudi Arabia for building a thousand mosques in Europe for the refugees instead of helping them with food, shelter and other material necessities of life. Many Europeans know that Wahhabism is spread through mosque-centered propaganda. An American Robert Baer had published a book soon after the 9/11 attack on World Trade Centre in New York with the title “Sleeping with the Devil”.[3]

About this book Laura Rozen writes:

“But Robert Baer's tale is not only an indictment of the Saudi royal family and its excesses. The real target of Baer's criticism is the U.S. government itself. According to Baer, successive presidential administrations have stubbornly ignored the facts about Riyadh and other oil-rich Persian Gulf allies. In the wake of 9-11, of course, the evidence that the Saudis played a significant if not dominant role in those attacks, and in the ranks and leadership of al-Qaeda, was overwhelming.”[4]

This is how Wikipedia describes Wahhabism: “Wahhabism or Wahhabi mission is a religious movement or branch of Sunni Islam. It has been variously described as ‘ultraconservative’, ‘austere’,‘fundamentalist’,  ‘puritanical’ (or ‘puritan’) and as an Islamic ‘reform movement’ to restore ‘pure monotheistic worship’ (tawhid) by scholars and advocates, and as an ‘extremist pseudo-Sunni movement’ by opponents.”[5] Saudi Arabia used to send enormous amount of Petro-dollars to Muslims in the non-Muslim countries for propaganda. Recently it was reported that the Muslim Religious leaders were secretly instigating the prisoners in Iraq to carry on with terrorist attacks on the non-Muslims and moderate Muslims. These reports make the Western nations suspect that Islam as a whole is for terrorism.

The unpleasant thing is that even the cruelest terrorist activities are not strongly opposed by most Muslims.

“The West has long known about the key and destructive role that Saudi Arabia plays in the financing and support of terrorist groups worldwide. In a 2009 leaked diplomatic cable, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton wrote that Saudi Arabia is the world’s largest source of funds for Islamist militant groups including al-Qaeda and the Taliban. Another cable reveals how the Lashkar-e-Taiba, responsible for 26/11, used a Saudi-based front company to fund its activities.”[6]

Varadarajan expresses the following view on the Saudi hand in the terrorist activities of the ISIS, in theIndian Express:

“There are Saudi-funded mosques and madrasas and deceptively benign evangelical institutions, as well as Saudi-moneyed apologists, all over Europe and North America (not to mention Asia and Islamic Africa); but there’s not a single Christian church, or Hindu temple, or Sikh Gurudwara, or Buddhist temple or  synagogue on the soil of Saudi Arabia.”[7]

          The Indian Express contains an article “Looking Within” taken from The Economist Newspaper gives some valuable suggestions for reform in Islam:

“Western leaders have long urged Muslims to do more to counter jihadist ideology. This month Barrack Obama said moderate Muslims, including scholars and clerics, had a responsibility to reject ‘twisted interpretations of Islam’ and the lie ‘that America and the West are somehow at war with Islam’. On February 23rd Tony Abbott, Australia’s prime minister, urged Muslim leaders to say that Islam is a religion of peace – ‘and mean it’… On February 22ndAhmed al-Tayeb, the grand imam of Egypt’s al-Azhar mosque, part of a university that is the Sunni world’s oldest seat of learning, declared that extremism was caused by ‘bad interpretations of the Koran and the Sunna (the doings of the Prophet Muhammad)’, and that what was taught in Islamic schools and universities needed to change.”[8]

            We have seen some brief descriptions by different authors about the explosive spread of the contagious disease of Islamophobia in the Western nations. Every terrorist attack adds fuel to the fire of this disease. Let us have a key-hole peep into the dark world of Islamic terrorism.   

[1] Link:
[2] Indian Express, “The big Muslim tragedy”, November 22, 2015, p.13
[3] Robert Baer, Publisher: Three Rivers Press, 2004
[6] Indian Express, Hayder Al-Khoei, “A War against Itself”, January 7, 2016, p.10
[7] Indian Express, Tunku Varadarajan, Reverse Swing, “Christmas in the Ummah”, December 27, 2015, p.12
[8] Indian Express, “Looking within”, March 2, 2015, p.12